We work on a lot of different types of lithium batteries here at Higher Wire. One of the major issues we've come across time and again is the lack of thought given to repairability or recycling when designing or manufacturing a battery assembly. Design for recycling (DfR) is a crucial concept in the field of sustainability, aiming to optimize the recyclability of products throughout their lifecycle. The goal of DfR is to maximize the recovery of valuable materials and minimize environmental impacts associated with their disposal.
This is a common issue that many firms face when attempting to repair or recycle batteries, based on a number of discussions we've had with similar second life and end-of-life companies. Our experience has driven us to make repairability a main component of our designs. Several key design considerations can enhance the sustainability of lithium-ion batteries.
Facilitating easy disassembly is an essential aspect of DfR for lithium-ion batteries. The design should include clear instructions and fasteners that allow for safe and efficient separation of different components. For example, removable connectors or snap-fit designs can simplify the disassembly process. By enabling easy access to the battery cells, the process becomes more efficient and cost-effective. Manufacturers should consider the guidance provided by initiatives like the Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Electronics Challenge, which emphasizes the importance of designing products for end-of-life management, including recycling. Instead, we often see batteries with laser-welded bus bars. While this is more robust than bolt-on connectors, it often renders a battery useless when a single cell fails, as few companies like us have the tools and expertise to replace a cell at a reasonable cost. It forces us to mill off the welds, then drill and tap electrodes. This is time-consuming and costly.
Secondly, DfR should focus on promoting the use of standardized components and materials in lithium-ion batteries. Standardization allows for easier and more cost-effective recycling processes. For instance, adopting uniform sizes and shapes for battery cells can simplify sorting and dismantling operations in facilities such as ours. Additionally, using commonly available materials in battery construction, such as aluminum and copper, enhances the feasibility of recovering and reusing these valuable resources. The ReCell Center, a U.S. Department of Energy initiative, encourages the standardization of battery designs to streamline the recycling process.
Furthermore, considering the environmental and health impacts of battery chemistries is vital in the design for recycling of lithium-ion batteries. Certain chemistries, such as lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), are more environmentally friendly and pose fewer risks during the recycling process. Designers should prioritize battery chemistries that have a lower environmental footprint, such as reduced reliance on rare or toxic materials. Research conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) highlights the importance of selecting battery materials that are abundant, non-toxic, and widely recyclable.
Designing lithium-ion batteries for recycling is essential for achieving a circular economy and reducing the environmental impact of these energy storage devices. By implementing design principles that promote easy disassembly, standardization of components, and environmentally friendly chemistries, the recyclability of lithium-ion batteries can be significantly improved. Initiatives such as the SMM Electronics Challenge and the work of organizations like the ReCell Center provide valuable guidance for manufacturers and designers aiming to create more sustainable battery systems.
- Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Electronics Challenge. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from: https://www.epa.gov/smm-electronics/sustainable-materials-management-smm-electronics-challenge
- ReCell Center. U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved from: https://www.energy.gov/eere/vehicles/recell-center
- Wood, E., et al. (2020). Design for end-of-life: Lithium-ion battery recycling and the circular economy. Sustainable Materials and Technologies, 25, e00203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.susmat.2020.e00203
- Circular Economy of EV Batteries: Design for Recyclability. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Retrieved from: https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy19osti/72631.pdf